- Bachelor of Arts in History, with Single-Subject Preparation for Teaching
- Teaching canadian history
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- History Major with Single-Subject Preparation for Teaching
- Taking Aim
This view of history is radically different from the way that historians see their work. Students who think that history is about facts and dates miss exciting opportunities to understand how history is a discipline that is guided by particular rules of evidence and how particular analytical skills can be relevant for understanding events in their lives see Ravitch and Finn, Unfortunately, many teachers do not present an exciting approach to history, perhaps because they, too, were taught in the dates-facts method.
In Chapter 2 , we discussed a study of experts in the field of history and learned that they regard the available evidence as more than lists of facts Wineburg, The study contrasted a group of gifted high school seniors with a group of working historians. Both groups were given a test of facts about the American Revolution taken from the chapter review section of a popular United States history textbook. The historians who had backgrounds in American history knew most of the items, while historians whose specialties lay elsewhere knew only a third of the test facts.
Several students scored higher than some historians on the factual pretest. In addition to the test of facts, however, the historians and students were presented with a set of historical documents and asked to sort out competing claims and to formulate reasoned interpretations. The historians excelled at this task. Most students, on the other hand, were stymied.
Despite the volume of historical information the students possessed, they had little sense of how to use it productively for forming interpretations of events or for reaching conclusions. Different views of history affect how teachers teach history. Consider the different types of feedback that Mr. Barnes and Ms. Kelsey gave a student paper; see Box 7. Overall, Mr. Barnes saw the papers as an indication of the bell-shaped distribution of abilities; Ms.
Kelsey saw them as representing the misconception that history is about memorizing a mass of information and recounting a series of facts. These two teachers had very different ideas about the nature of learning history. Those ideas affected how they taught and what they wanted their students to achieve. For expert history teachers, their knowledge of the discipline and beliefs about its structure interact with their teaching strategies. Rather than simply introduce students to sets of facts to be learned, these teachers help people to understand the problematic nature of historical interpretation and analysis and to appreciate the relevance of history for their everyday lives.
One example of outstanding history teaching comes from the classroom of Bob Bain, a public school teacher in Beechwood, Ohio.
Bachelor of Arts in History, with Single-Subject Preparation for Teaching
Historians, he notes, are cursed with an abundance of data—the traces of the past threaten to overwhelm them unless they find some way of separating what is important from what is peripheral. The assumptions that historians hold about significance shape how they write their histories, the data they select, and the narrative they compose, as well as the larger schemes they bring to organize and periodize the past. Often these assumptions about historical significance remain unarticulated in the classroom.
Bob Bain begins his ninth-grade high school class by having all the students create a time capsule of what they think are the most important artifacts from the past. In this way, the students explicitly articulate their underlying assumptions of what constitutes historical significance.
Teaching canadian history
At first, students apply the rules rigidly and algorithmically, with little understanding that just as they made the rules, they can also change them. But as students become more practiced in plying their judgments of significance, they come to see the rules as tools for assaying the arguments of different historians, which allows them to begin to understand why historians disagree.
Leinhardt and Greeno , spent 2 years studying a highly accomplished teacher of advanced placement history in an urban high school in Pittsburgh. The teacher, Ms. BOX 7. When the French and Indian war ended, British expected Americans to help them pay back there war debts. If I had the choice between being loyal, or rebelling and having something to eat, I know what my choice would be. I think a lot of people also just were going with the flow, or were being pressured by the Sons of Liberty. By the end of the course, students moved from being passive spectators of the past to enfranchised agents who could participate in the forms of thinking, reasoning, and engagement that are the hallmark of skilled historical cognition.
For example, early in the school year, Ms. Remember that your reader is basically ignorant, so you need to express your view as clearly as you can. Try to form your ideas from the beginning to a middle and then an end. In the middle, justify your view. What factors support your idea and will convince your reader?
By January his responses to questions about the fall of the cotton-based economy in the South were linked to British trade policy and colonial ventures in Asia, as well as to the failure of Southern leaders to read public opinion accurately in Great Britain. Elizabeth Jensen prepares her group of eleventh graders to debate the following resolution:. Resolved: The British government possesses the legitimate authority to tax the American colonies. But today that voice is silent as her students take up the question of the legitimacy of British taxation in the American colonies.
England says she keeps troops here for our own protection. On face value, this seems reasonable enough, but there is really no substance to their claims. First of all, who do they think they are protecting us from? The French? Quoting from our friend Mr. Maybe they need to protect us from the Spanish?
Yet the same war also subdued the Spanish, so they are no real worry either. In fact, the only threat to our order is the Indians…but…we have a decent militia of our own…. So why are they putting troops here? The only possible reason is to keep us in line. With more and more troops coming over, soon every freedom we hold dear will be stripped away. The great irony is that Britain expects us to pay for these vicious troops, these British squelchers of colonial justice. We moved here, we are paying less taxes than we did for two generations in England, and you complain? But did you know that over one-half of their war debt was caused by defending us in the French and Indian War….
Yet virtual representation makes this whining of yours an untruth. Every British citizen, whether he had a right to vote or not, is represented in Parliament. Why does this representation not extend to America? Rebel: Okay, then what about the Intolerable Acts…denying us rights of British subjects.
What about the rights we are denied? Loyalist: The Sons of Liberty tarred and feather people, pillaged homes— they were definitely deserving of some sort of punishment. For a moment, the room is a cacophony of charges and countercharges. The teacher, still in the corner, still with spiral notebook in lap, issues her only command of the day. Order is restored and the loyalists continue their opening argument from Wineburg and Wilson, She knows that her and year-olds cannot begin to grasp the complexities of the debates without first understanding that these disagreements were rooted in fundamentally different conceptions of human nature—a point glossed over in two paragraphs in her history textbook.
Rather than beginning the year with a unit on European discovery and exploration, as her text dictates, she begins with a conference on the nature of man. Students in her eleventh-grade history class read excerpts from the writings of philosophers Hume, Locke, Plato, and Aristotle , leaders of state and revolutionaries Jefferson, Lenin, Gandhi , and tyrants Hitler, Mussolini , presenting and advocating these views before their classmates. Six weeks later, when it is time to study the ratification of the Constitution, these now-familiar figures—Plato, Aristotle, and others—are reconvened to be courted by impassioned groups of Federalists and anti-Federalists.
These examples provide glimpses of outstanding teaching in the discipline of history. As we previously noted, this point sharply contradicts one of the popular—and dangerous—myths about teaching: teaching is a generic skill and a good teacher can teach any subject. The uniqueness of the content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge necessary to teach his-. As is the case in history, most people believe that they know what mathematics is about—computation. Most people are familiar with only the computational aspects of mathematics and so are likely to argue for its place in the school curriculum and for traditional methods of instructing children in computation.
In contrast, mathematicians see computation as merely a tool in the real stuff of mathematics, which includes problem solving, and characterizing and understanding structure and patterns. The current debate concerning what students should learn in mathematics seems to set proponents of teaching computational skills against the advocates of fostering conceptual understanding and reflects the wide range of beliefs about what aspects of mathematics are important to know. A growing body of research provides convincing evidence that what teachers know and believe about mathematics is closely linked to their instructional decisions and actions Brown, ; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, ; Wilson, a, b; Brophy, ; Thompson, Thus, as we examine mathematics instruction, we need to pay attention to the subject-matter knowledge of teachers, their pedagogical knowledge general and content specific , and their knowledge of children as learners of mathematics.
In this section, we examine three cases of mathematics instruction that are viewed as being close to the current vision of exemplary instruction and discuss the knowledge base on which the teacher is drawing, as well as the beliefs and goals which guide his or her instructional decisions. For teaching multidigit multiplication, teacher-researcher Magdelene Lampert created a series of lessons in which she taught a heterogeneous group of 28 fourth-grade students.
The students ranged in computational skill from beginning to learn the single-digit multiplication facts to being able to accurately solve n-digit by n-digit multiplications. The lessons were intended to give children experiences in which the important mathematical principles of additive and multiplicative composition, associativity, commutativity, and the distributive property of multiplication over addition were all evident in the steps of the procedures used to arrive at an answer Lampert, It is clear from her description of her instruction that both her deep understanding of multiplicative structures and her knowledge of a wide range of representations and problem situations related to multiplication were brought to bear as she planned and taught these lessons.
Lampert described her role as follows:. I also taught new information in the form of symbolic structures and emphasized the connection between symbols and operations on quantities, but I made it a classroom requirement that students use their own ways of deciding whether something was mathematically reasonable in doing the work. On the part of the teacher, the principles might be known as a more formal abstract system, whereas on the part of the learners, they are known in relation to familiar experiential contexts. But what seems most important is that teachers and students together are disposed toward a particular way of viewing and doing mathematics in the classroom.
Magdelene Lampert set out to connect what students already knew about multidigit multiplication with principled conceptual knowledge.
She did so in three sets of lessons. Another set of lessons used simple stories and drawings to illustrate the ways in which large quantities could be grouped. Finally, the third set of lessons used only numbers and arithmetic symbols to represent problems. Throughout the lessons, students were challenged to explain their answers and to rely on their arguments, rather than to rely on the teacher or book for verification of correctness.
An example serves to highlight this approach; see Box 7. They were able to talk meaningfully about place value and order of operations to give legitimacy to procedures and to reason about their outcomes, even though they did not use technical terms to do so. I took their experimentations and arguments as evidence that they had come to see mathematics as more than a set of procedures for finding answers. Clearly, her own deep understanding of mathematics comes into play as she teaches these lessons. Helping third-grade students extend their understanding of numbers from the natural numbers to the integers is a challenge undertaken by another teacher-researcher.
That is, she not only takes into account what the important mathematical ideas are, but also how children think about the particular area of mathematics on which she is focusing. She draws on both her understanding of the integers as mathematical entities subject-matter knowledge and her extensive pedagogical content knowledge specifically about integers.
A wealth of possible models for negative numbers exists and she reviewed a number of them—magic peanuts, money, game scoring, a frog on a number line, buildings with floors above and below ground. She decided to use the building model first and money later: she was acutely aware of the strengths and limitations of each. Teacher: And if I did this multiplication and found the answer, what would I know about those. Teacher: Okay, here are the jars. The stars in them will stand for butterflies. Now, it will be easier for us to count how many butterflies there are altogether, if we think of the jars in groups.
Lampert then has the children explore other ways of grouping the jars, for example, into two groups of 6 jars. It is a sign that she needs to do many more activities involving different groupings. Students continue to develop their understanding of the principles that govern multiplication and to invent computational procedures based on those principles. Students defend the reasonableness of their procedures by using drawings and stories.
Eventually, students explore more traditional as well as alternative algorithms for two-digit multiplication, using only written symbols. She hoped that the positional aspects of the building model would help children recognize that negative numbers were not equivalent to zero, a common misconception.
She was aware that the building model would be difficult to use for modeling subtraction of negative numbers. Deborah Ball begins her work with the students, using the building model by labeling its floors. Students were presented with increasingly difficult problems. Ball then used a model of money as a second representational context for exploring negative numbers, noting that it, too, has limitations. Like Lampert, Ball wanted her students to accept the responsibility of deciding when a solution is reasonable and likely to be correct, rather than depending on text or teacher for confirmation of correctness.
The concept of cognitively guided instruction helps illustrate another important characteristic of effective mathematics instruction: that teachers not only need knowledge of a particular topic within mathematics and knowledge of how learners think about the particular topic, but also need to develop knowledge about how the indi-. Teachers, it is claimed, will use their knowledge to make appropriate instructional decisions to assist students to construct their mathematical knowledge.
Cognitively guided instruction is used by Annie Keith, who teaches a combination first- and second-grade class in an elementary school in Madison Wisconsin Hiebert et al. A portrait of Ms. Students spend a great deal of time discussing alternative strategies with each other, in groups, and as a whole class. The teacher often participates in these discussions but almost never demonstrates the solution to problems.
Important ideas in mathematics are developed as students explore solutions to problems, rather than being a focus of instruction per se. For example, place-value concepts are developed as students use base materials, such as base blocks and counting frames, to solve word problems involving multidigit numbers. Everyday first-grade and second-grade activities, such as sharing snacks, lunch count, and attendance, regularly serve as contexts for problem-solving tasks. Mathematics lessons frequently make use of math centers in which the students do a variety of activities.
On any given day, children at one center may solve word problems presented by the teacher while at another center children write word problems to present to the class later or play a math game. She continually challenges her students to think and to try to make sense of what they are doing in math.
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She uses the activities as opportunities for her to learn what individual students know and understand about mathematics. As students work in groups to solve problems, she observes the various solutions and mentally makes notes about which students should present their work: she wants a variety of solutions presented so that students will have an opportunity to learn from each other. Her knowledge of the important ideas in mathematics serves as one framework for the selection process, but her understanding of how children think about the mathematical ideas they are using also affects her decisions about who should present.
She might select a solution that is actually incorrect to be presented so that she can initiate a discussion of a common misconception. Or she. Both the presentations of solutions and the class discussions that follow provide her with information about what her students know and what problems she should use with them next. She forms hypotheses about what her students understand and selects instructional activities based on these hypotheses. She modifies her instruction as she gathers additional information about her students and compares it with the mathematics she wants them to learn.
Some attempts to revitalize mathematics instruction have emphasized the importance of modeling phenomena. Work on modeling can be done from kindergarten through twelth grade K— Modeling involves cycles of model construction, model evaluation, and model revision. It is central to professional practice in many disciplines, such as mathematics and science, but it is largely missing from school instruction.
History Major with Single-Subject Preparation for Teaching
Modeling practices are ubiquitous and diverse, ranging from the construction of physical models, such as a planetarium or a model of the human vascular system, to the development of abstract symbol systems, exemplified by the mathematics of algebra, geometry, and calculus. The ubiquity and diversity of models in these disciplines suggest that modeling can help students develop understanding about a wide range of important ideas.
Modeling practices can and should be fostered at every age and grade level Clement, ; Hestenes, ; Lehrer and Romberg, a, b; Schauble et al. Taking a model-based approach to a problem entails inventing or selecting a model, exploring the qualities of the model, and then applying the model to answer a question of interest.
For example, the geometry of triangles has an internal logic and also has predictive power for phenomena ranging from optics to wayfinding as in navigational systems to laying floor tile. Modeling emphasizes a need for forms of mathematics that are typically underrepresented in the standard curriculum, such as spatial visualization and geometry, data structure, measurement, and uncertainty.
For example, the scientific study of animal behavior, like bird foraging, is se-. Note, for instance, the rubber bands that mimic the connective function of ligaments and the wooden dowels that are arranged so that their translation in the vertical plane cannot exceed degrees. Though the search for function is supported by initial resemblance, what counts as resemblance typically changes as children revise their models. For example, attempts to make models exemplify elbow motion often lead to an interest in the way muscles might be arranged from Lehrer and Schauble, a, b.
Increasingly, approaches to early mathematics teaching incorporate the premises that all learning involves extending understanding to new situations, that young children come to school with many ideas about mathematics, that knowledge relevant to a new setting is not always accessed spontaneously, and that learning can be enhanced by respecting and encouraging. Rather than beginning mathematics instruction by focusing solely on computational algorithms, such as addition and subtraction, students are encouraged to invent their own strategies for solving problems and to discuss why those strategies work.
Teachers may also explicitly prompt students to think about aspects of their everyday life that are potentially relevant for further learning. For example, everyday experiences of walking and related ideas about position and direction can serve as a springboard for developing corresponding mathematics about the structure of large-scale space, position, and direction Lehrer and Romberg, b. Two recent examples in physics illustrate how research findings can be used to design instructional strategies that promote the sort of problem-solving behavior observed in experts.
Undergraduates who had finished an introductory physics course were asked to spend a total of 10 hours, spread over several weeks, solving physics problems using a computer-based tool that constrained them to perform a conceptual analysis of the problems based on a hierarchy of principles and procedures that could be applied to solve them Dufresne et al. This approach was motivated by research on expertise discussed in Chapter 2. The reader will recall that, when asked to state an approach to solving a problem, physicists generally discuss principles and procedures.
Novices, in contrast, tend to discuss specific equations that could be used to manipulate variables given in the problem Chi et al. When compared with a group of students who solved the same problems on their own, the students who used the computer to carry out the hierarchical analyses performed noticeably better in subsequent measures of expertise. For example, in problem solving, those who performed the hierarchical analyses outperformed those who did not, whether measured in terms of overall problem-solving performance, ability to arrive at the correct answer, or ability to apply appropriate principles to solve the problems; see Figure 7.
Furthermore, similar differences emerged in problem categorization: students who performed the hierarchical analyses considered principles as opposed to surface features more often in. See Chapter 6 for an example of the type of item used in the categorization task of Figure 7.
It is also worth noting that both Figures 7. In both cases, the control group made significant improvements simply as a result of practice time on task , but the experimental group showed more improvements for the same amount of training time deliberate practice. Introductory physics courses have also been taught successfully with an approach for problem solving that begins with a qualitative hierarchical analysis of the problems Leonard et al.
Undergraduate engineering students were instructed to write qualitative strategies for solving problems before attempting to solve them based on Chi et al. The strategies consisted of a coherent verbal description of how a problem could be solved and contained three components: the major principle to be applied; the justification for why the principle was applicable; and the procedures for applying the principle. That is, the what, why, and how of solving the problem were explicitly delineated; see Box 7.
Compared with students who took a traditional course, students in the strategy-based course performed significantly better in their ability to categorize problems according to the relevant principles that could be applied to solve them; see Figure 7. Hierarchical structures are useful strategies for helping novices both recall knowledge and solve problems. For example, physics novices who had completed and received good grades in an introductory college physics course were trained to generate a problem analysis called a theoretical problem description Heller and Reif, The analysis consists of describing force problems in terms of concepts, principles, and heuristics.
With such an approach, novices substantially improved in their ability to solve problems, even though the type of theoretical problem description used in the study was not a natural one for novices. Novices untrained in the theoretical descriptions were generally unable to generate appropriate descriptions on their own—even given fairly routine problems. Skills, such as the ability to describe a problem in detail before attempting a solution, the ability to determine what relevant information should enter the analysis of a problem, and the ability to decide which procedures can be used to generate problem descriptions and analyses, are tacitly used by experts but rarely taught explicitly in physics courses.
Another approach helps students organize knowledge by imposing a hierarchical organization on the performance of different tasks in physics Eylon and Reif, Students who received a particular physics argument that was organized in hierarchical form performed various recall and problem-solving tasks better than subjects who received the same argument. Similarly, students who received a hierarchical organization of problem-solving strategies performed much better than subjects who received the same strategies organized non-hierarchically.
If students had simply been given problems to solve on their own an instructional practice used in all the sciences , it is highly. Students might get stuck for minutes, or even hours, in attempting a solution to a problem and either give up or waste lots of time. In Chapter 3 , we discussed ways in which learners profit from errors and that making mistakes is not always time wasted. However, it is not efficient if a student spends most of the problem-solving time rehearsing procedures that are not optimal for promoting skilled performance, such as finding and manipulating equations to solve the problem, rather than identifying the underlying principle and procedures that apply to the problem and then constructing the specific equations needed.
In deliberate practice, a student works under a tutor human. Students enrolled in an introductory physics course were asked to write a strategy for an exam problem. Strategy 1: Use the conservation of energy since the only nonconservative force in the system is the tension in the rope attached to the mass M and wound around the disk assuming there is no friction between the axle and the disk, and the mass M and the air , and the work done by the tension to the disk and the mass cancel each other out. First, set up a coordinate system so the potential energy of the system at the start can be determined.
There will be no kinetic energy at the start since it starts at rest. Therefore the potential energy is all the initial energy. Now set the initial energy equal to the final energy that is made up of the kinetic energy of the disk plus the mass M and any potential energy left in the system with respect to the chosen coordinate system. Strategy 2: I would use conservation of mechanical energy to solve this problem. The mass M has some potential energy while it is hanging there. When the block starts to accelerate downward the potential energy is transformed into rotational kinetic energy.
Through deliberate practice, computer-based tutoring environments have been designed that reduce the time it takes individuals to reach real-world performance criteria from 4 years to 25 hours see Chapter 9!
Before students can really learn new scientific concepts, they often need to re-conceptualize deeply rooted misconceptions that interfere with the learning. As reviewed above see Chapters 3 and 4 , people spend considerable time and effort constructing a view of the physical world through. Mechanical energy is conserved even with the nonconservative tension force because the tension force is internal to the system pulley, mass, rope. Strategy 3: In trying to find the speed of the block I would try to find angular momentum kinetic energy, use gravity.
I would also use rotational kinematics and moment of inertia around the center of mass for the disk. Strategy 4: There will be a torque about the center of mass due to the weight of the block, M. The force pulling downward is mg. The moment of inertia multiplied by the angular acceleration. By plugging these values into a kinematic expression, the angular speed can be calculated. Then, the angular speed times the radius gives you the velocity of the block.
The first two strategies display an excellent understanding of the principles, justification, and procedures that could be used to solve the problem the what, why, and how for solving the problem. The last two strategies are largely a shopping list of physics terms or equations that were covered in the course, but the students are not able to articulate why or how they apply to the problem under consideration. Having students write strategies after modeling strategy writing for them and providing suitable scaffolding to ensure progress provides an excellent formative assessment tool for monitoring whether or not students are making the appropriate links between problem contexts, and the principles and procedures that could be applied to solve them see Leonard et al.
Starting with the anchoring intuition that a spring exerts an upward force on the book resting on it, the student might be asked if a book resting on the. The fact that the bent board looks as if it is serving the same function as the spring helps many students agree that both the spring and the board exert upward forces on the book. After the workshops she saw the transformation of her practice as complete as she made some changes in her teaching at the elementary school level that reflected the then-new California mathematics framework.
However, she stopped short of rethinking her knowledge of mathematics and saw no need for additional education. For Mrs. O to accept the new reform on a deeper level, she would have had to unlearn old mathematics, learn new concepts of teaching mathematics, and have a much more substantial understanding of mathematics itself. The workshops that Mrs. O attended provided her only with teaching techniques, not with the deep understanding of mathematics and mathematics teaching and learning that she would need to implement the reform as envisioned by policymakers.
Preliminary attempts to educate teachers to use Minds on Physics Leonard et al. Teachers were provided with an in-depth summer workshop, three academic year follow-ups, and contact with the curriculum developers through mail, electronic mail, and telephone.
Even though. For example, while the new curriculum focused on content organized around big ideas as a way to engender deep conceptual understanding of physics, the teachers believed that the purpose of their courses was to provide their students with an overview of all physics because their students would never take another physics course Feldman and Kropf, Several professional development projects for teachers use subject matter as the primary vehicle for learning; teachers learn how to teach a subject by focusing on their own experiences as learners.
In SummerMath, teachers solve mathematics problems together or actually participate in authoring texts. In Project SEED Science for Early Education Development , elementary school teachers in Pasadena were provided with opportunities to learn about science content and pedagogy by working with the curriculum kits that they would be using in the classroom. Teachers were introduced to content by experienced mentor teachers and scientists, who worked with them as they used the kits Marsh and Sevilla, It can be difficult for teachers to undertake the task of rethinking their subject matter.
Learning involves making oneself vulnerable and taking risks, and this is not how teachers often see their role. When they encourage students to actively explore issues and generate questions, it is almost inevitable that they will encounter questions that they cannot answer—and this can be threatening. Helping teachers become comfortable with the role of learner is very important. Providing them with access to subject-matter expertise is also extremely important.
New developments in technology see Chapter 9 provide avenues for helping teachers and their students gain wider access to expertise. Environments that are assessment centered provide opportunities for learners to test their understanding by trying out things and receiving feedback. Such opportunities are important to teacher learning for a number of reasons. In addition to providing evidence of success, feedback provides opportunities to clarify ideas and correct misconceptions.
Especially important are opportunities to receive feedback from colleagues who observe attempts to implement new ideas in classrooms. Without feedback, it is difficult to correct potentially erroneous ideas. A report from a group of researchers highlights the importance of classroom-based feedback Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, They attempted to implement ideas for teaching that had been developed by several of their colleagues at different universities. The researchers were very familiar with the material and could easily recite relevant theory and data.
However, once they faced the challenge of helping teachers implement the ideas in local classrooms in their area, they realized the need for. Mazie Jenkins was skeptical when first told that research shows that first-grade children can solve addition and subtraction word problems without being taught the procedures. You have five candy bars in your Halloween bag; the lady in the next house puts some more candy bars in your bag. Now you have eight candy bars. How many candy bars did the lady in the next house give you?
Without extended opportunities for more information and feedback, the researchers did not know how to proceed. After several months, the researchers and their teacher collaborators began to feel comfortable with their attempts at implementation. There were numerous errors of implementation, which could be traced to an inadequate understanding of the new programs. The experience taught all participants a valuable lesson.
https://de.iberyzuvicet.tk The colleagues who had developed the programs realized that they had not been as clear as they should have been about their ideas and procedures. The researchers experienced the difficulty of implementing new programs and realized that their errors would have remained invisible without feedback about what was wrong. Certification programs are being developed that are designed to help teachers reflect on and improve their practice.
Suggestions for reflection help teachers focus on aspects of their teaching that they might otherwise have failed to notice. In addition, teachers preparing for certification often ask peers to provide feedback on their teaching and their ideas. Billie Hicklin, a seventh-grade teacher in North Carolina, was one of the first teachers to participate in the National Board certification process Bunday and Kelly, She found that the structured reflection that was required for certification resulted in her making significant changes in her teaching practices and in the ways that she interacts with colleagues Renyi, Community-centered environments involve norms that encourage collaboration and learning.
As part of these communities, teachers share successes and failures with pedagogy and curriculum development. Some communities of practice are supported by school districts. The externs design their own programs, do research projects, and participate in group seminars. In DATA, the community of practice is supported by providing the extern teachers with sabbaticals, supporting the resident teachers through reduced loads, and by giving the program a home— portable classrooms next to Miami Beach High School Renyi, Again, the central questions involve looking deeply at student work, not trying to provide reasons psychological, social, economic that the student might not be producing strong academic work.
This approach often uses student artwork to help teachers identify student strengths. Other ways to foster collaboration include opportunities to score and discuss student essays or to compare and discuss student portfolios Wiske, Collaborative discussions become most valuable when two teachers are jointly involved in sense-making and understanding of the phenomena of learning e. Every day these two algebra teachers had to discuss and agree on what to do next. Overall, two major themes emerge from studies of teacher collaborations: the importance of shared experiences and discourse around texts and.
These findings are consistent with analyses of situated learning and discourse Greeno et al. Action research represents another approach to enhancing teacher learning by proposing ideas to a community of learners. Action research is an approach to professional development in which, typically, teachers spend 1 or more years working on classroom-based research projects. While action research has multiple forms and purposes, it is an important way for teachers to improve their teaching and their curricula, and there is also an assumption that what teachers learn through this process can be shared with others Noffke, Action research contributes to sustained teacher learning and becomes a way for teachers to teach other teachers Feldman, Ideally, active engagement in research on teaching and learning also helps set the stage for understanding the implications of new theories of how people learn.
Between the meetings they try out pedagogical and curricular ideas from the group. They then report to the group on successes and failures and critically analyze the implementation of the ideas. In addition to generating and sharing of pedagogical content knowledge, the PTARG teachers came to deeper understandings of their subject area Feldman, ; see also Hollingsworth, , on work with urban literacy teachers. Action research can also be tailored to the level of expertise and the needs of the teachers, especially if the teachers set the goals for the research and work collaboratively.
When action research is conducted in a collaborative mode among teachers, it fosters the growth of learning communities. In fact, some of these communities have flourished for as many as 20 years, such as the Philadelphia Teachers Learning Cooperative and the Classroom Action Research Network Feldman, ; Hollingsworth, ; Cochran-Smith and Lytle, Unfortunately, the use of action research as a model of sustained teacher learning is hampered by lack of time and other resources.
Teachers in the United States are generally not provided with paid time for such professional activities as action research. To provide that time would require financial resources that are not available to most school districts. As a result, teachers either engage in action research on their own time, as part of credit-bearing courses, or as part of separately funded projects.
While teachers have claimed that they have incorporated action research into their practice in an informal manner, there is little research that has examined what that means. The sustainability of action research is also hampered by the difference between practitioner research and academic research. If academicians are to encourage teachers to do action research, they need to have models that fit the temporal flow of school teaching Feldman and Atkin, and rely on forms of validity that are appropriate to research in the practical domain Feldman, ; Cochran-Smith and Lytle, Preservice programs that prepare new teachers will play an especially important role during the next few decades Darling-Hammond, :.
First, teacher education can be an undergraduate major or a program that is in addition to an academic major. Second, there can be an expectation that the program can be completed within the traditional 4 years of undergraduate study or that it is a 5-year or masters degree program as advocated by the Holmes Group Third, programs for initial teacher preparation can be university or college based or located primarily in the field.
Finally, programs can differ as to whether they are primarily academic programs or whether their main purpose is certification or licensing. While programs can vary in these ways, they tend to have several components in common: some subject-matter preparation, usually liberal arts or general education for prospective elementary teachers and subject-matter concentration for prospective secondary teachers; a series of foundational courses, such as philosophy, sociology, history, psychology of education;. Four philosophical traditions of practice have dominated teacher education in the twentieth century Zeichner and Liston, :.
Although these traditions can act as useful heuristics for understanding the guiding principles of particular teacher education programs, it is important to realize that most programs do not fit neatly within the categories Zeichner, And even though these traditions underlie teacher education programs, students are often not aware of them explicitly Zeichner and Liston, The actual experiences of many prospective teachers often obscure the philosophical or ideological notions that guide their preparatory years, which color evaluations of the quality of preservice experiences see below.
The components of teacher education programs—collections of courses, field experiences, and student teaching—tend to be disjointed Goodlad, ; they are often taught or overseen by people who have little ongoing communication with each other. Even when the components are efficiently organized, there may be no shared philosophical base among the faculty. Moreover, grading policies in college classes can undercut collaboration, and students rarely have a chance to form teams who stay together for a significant portion of their education unlike the team approach to problembased learning in medical schools see, e.
Political factors have strong effects on teacher education. The regulations often interfere with attempts. The majority of teachers are educated in state colleges and universities, the budgets of which are controlled by state legislators and governors, and they teach in public schools that are affected by local politics through school boards, as well as by the same statewide influences Elmore and Sykes, It is not surprising that these many forces do not lead to the most innovative teacher education programs.
Inadequate time: 4-year undergraduate degrees make it difficult for prospective elementary teachers to learn subject matter and for prospective secondary teachers to learn about the nature of learners and learning.
Fragmentation: The traditional program arrangement foundations courses, developmental psychology sequence, methods courses, and field experiences offers disconnected courses that novices are expected to pull together into some meaningful, coherent whole. Uninspired teaching methods: Although teachers are supposed to excite students about learning, teacher preparation methods courses are often lectures and recitation.
Superficial curriculum: The need to fulfill certification requirements and degree requirements leads to programs that provide little depth in subject matter or in educational studies, such as research on teaching and learning. They also complain that methods courses are time consuming and without intellectual substance. When methods courses explore the theory and research bases for instructional methods and curricula, the students complain that they are not oriented enough toward practice. These problems in preservice education impede lifelong learning in at least two ways.
First, a message is sent to prospective teachers that research in education, whether on teaching or learning, has little to do with schooling and, therefore, that they do not need to learn about the findings from research. Even teachers who attend institutions that provide a strong preparation for teaching face major challenges after they graduate. They need to make the transition from a world dominated primarily by college courses, with only some supervised teaching experiences, to a world in which they are the teachers; hence, they face the challenge of transferring what they have learned.
Yet even with strong levels of initial learning, transfer does not happen immediately nor automatically see Chapter 3. People often need help in order to use relevant knowledge that they have acquired, and they usually need feedback and reflection so that they can try out and adapt their previously acquired skills and knowledge in new environments. These environments—the schools—have an extremely important effect on the beliefs, knowledge, and skills that new teachers will draw on.
Many of the schools that teachers enter are organized in ways that are not consistent with new developments in the science of learning. When student teachers enter their first classrooms, the instructional methods, curricula, and resources can be very different from the ones they learned about in teacher education programs.
So although prospective teachers are often anxious to begin their student teaching and find it the most satisfying aspect of their teacher preparation Hollins, , the dissonance between this experience and their course work supports the belief that educational theory and research have little to do with classroom practice. New teachers are often given the most challenging assignments—more students with special educational needs, the greatest number of class preparations some outside of their field of expertise , and many extracurricular duties—and they are usually asked to take on these responsibilities with little or no support from administrators or senior colleagues.
It is not surprising that turnover among new teachers is extremely high, particularly in the first 3 years of teaching. Teachers are key to enhancing learning in schools. In order to teach in a manner consistent with new theories of learning, extensive learning opportunities for teachers are required.
We assume that what is known about learning applies to teachers as well as their students. Yet teacher learning is a relatively new topic of research, so there is not a great deal of data about it. Much of what constitutes the typical approaches to formal teacher professional development are antithetical to what research findings indicate as promoting effective learning.
These kinds of activities have been accomplished by creating opportunities for shared experiences and discourse around shared texts and data about student learning, and focus on shared decisionmaking.